The Seljuk Han of Anatolia

HOROZLU HAN


View looking west

View looking east

Main entrance portal

Cells in covered section

commemorative stamp, 2001 issue

DISTRICT
42 KONYA


LOCATION
The Horuzlu Han is located on the Konya-Ankara road, about 5 miles north of Konya, between the road and the railway tracks, next to a cement factory. It is situated in the middle of the Organize Sanayi Bölge Industrial site. The caravan route split in two after this han, with one branch leading northwest (next han in the Zazadin Han) and the other northeast (next han is the Dokuzun Derbent Han).


NAMES
It is also known as the Ruzapa, Orozlu and Rube Han. The people of Konya refer to this han as the Ruzbe han. Kiepert marked this han on his map as the Horusion Han. Ahmet Eflaki calls the han the Ruzbih Han in his work Feats of the Knowers of God.
The word Horozlu ("Of the rooster") is probably a deformation of the name of the patron Ruz Apa.
 

DATE
1246-49


REIGN OF

İzzeddin Keykavus II
 

INSCRIPTION

The original inscription plaque for the han is lost.

 

PATRON
As the original inscription plaque for the han is lost, it is not exactly certain who was the patron of this han. It is believed to have been the Seljuk emir Camedar Esudüddin Ruz Apa. He is mentioned in Ibni Bibi in several places and with several functions: the tomb keeper of Sultan Giyaseddin Keyhüsrev II and as the atabeg (provincial governor) of Sultan Izzeddin Keykavus II between 1246-1249. He also built a hankah (dervish lodge) and a medrese, but they have not survived. The han is believed to have built in the short time when he was atabeg, with a terminus ante quem of 1249, the date of his assassination.
 

BUILDING TYPE

Covered section with an open courtyard (COC)
Covered section smaller than the courtyard
Covered section with 5 naves (central nave and 2 naves on each side, running perpendicular to the rear wall)
5 lines of support cross vaults parallel to the rear wall


DESCRIPTION
The han faces west and lies perpendicular to the road. The hall is covered with vaults on 16 piers, and includes a central dome. It resembles the Susuz Han in plan. The indoor area has been repaired in recent years and little is left of the courtyard area. The covered section was smaller than the original courtyard, which no longer exists. The courtyard area was investigated during excavations, when the traces of an arcade was discovered on the north side.

 

The covered section has 5 naves, with the central nave higher and wider than the lateral naves. The central nave is covered with a pointed vault running in the east-west direction, and two support lines each borne by 4 square piers. The central nave is supported with ribbed arches in the north-south direction. A dome is situated between the second and third arches of the central nave. This dome, with a conical exterior profile, sits on a high drum pierced with windows, providing light to the covered section. The interior of the covered section is also lit by slit windows in the north, south and west walls.

 

The crown door of the covered section comprises a circular arch and projects from the west wall. There are two columns on each side of the door. On the lateral interior faces of the doors are niches surmounted by quarter domes, with interlaced stones. The hall door inscription plaque is missing. The tympanum is currently filled with a plain, flat marble plaque in three sections.
 

DECORATION

The bricks of the dome vaults are set in a stunning herringbone pattern with three different colors of stone. Various mason marks can be seen inside the building on the stones, all of which were sketched by Erdmann.

DIMENSIONS
Area of the hall: 650 m2
 

STATE OF CONSERVATION, CURRENT USAGE
This noble han, one of Konya's finest, is now surrounded by factories and industrial buildings. The han remained in a ruined condition for some time, with the stones of its facade pillaged. The building was repaired in 1956-57, and again in 1963 and 1971 by the Turkish General Directorate of Foundations. It currently serves as a tourist restaurant, with several of the northern naves enclosed and remodeled as the restaurant kitchens.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

Acun, p. 502.

Altun, Ara. An Outline of Turkish Architecture in the Middle Ages, 1990, p. 200.
Bayrak, p. 458.
Bektaş, Cengiz. Selçuklu kervansarayları, korunmaları ve kullanılmaları uzerine bir öneri = A proposal regarding the Seljuk caravanserais, their protection and use, 1999, pp. 86-89.
Eravşar, Osman. Yollarin Taniklari (Witnesses of the Way), 2017, pp. 388-393.

Erdmann, Kurt. Das Anatolische Karavansaray des 13. Jahrhunderts, 1961, pp. 114-117, no. 31.
Guide bleu, p. 605.
Hillenbrand, R. Islamic Architecture: Form, function and meaning, 1994, fig. 6.52, p. 553.

      Karpuz, Kuş, Dıvarcı and Şiek (2008), vol. 2, p. 85.

      Kiepert, 1906-16.

Kuban (2002), pp. 240-241.

Kuş, A. & Dıvarcı, I. &  and Feyzi Şimşek, F. Konya ve ilçelerindeki Selçuklu Eserleri, 2005, pp. 187-188.
Rice, Tamara Talbot. The Seljuks in Asia Minor, 1961,  p. 205.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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