The Seljuk Han of Anatolia
ESHAB-I KEHF HAN
A dated han built to welcome visitors coming to an ancient interfaith pilgrimage site, the Eshab-I Keyf Han displays an interesting layout with a separate stable section. The han was designed as part of the Eshab-i Kehf Complex, which includes a fort (ribat), later used as a dervish lodge, and a mosque.
view from rear of han onto the ribat
plan drawn by Özkarci
Eravşar, 2017. p. 520
plan drawn by Erdmann
Eravşar, 2017. p. 519; photo I. Dıvarcı
Eravşar, 2017. p. 522; photo I. Dıvarcı
commemorative stamp, 2001 issue
The Esab-i Kehf Han is located 7 km north of the city of Afşin, 16 km past Elbistan on the Göksun road. It is situated directly in front of the Eshab-i Kehf cave. There is no caravan road passing in front of the han, so it is believed that it was built for the pilgrims coming to the cave, rather than for commercial purposes. The han is a part of a complex which includes a fort (ribat) and a mosque. These structures have been modified over the years, but the han has retained its original plan.
There is no inscription plaque furnishing the name of the han, so it is generally known as the Esab-i Keyf Han after the site. It is referred to in Ottoman period sources as the Afşin Han.
First quarter of the 13th century
Alaeddin Keykubad I
The inscription plaque to the han has been lost. Although the inscription plaque of the han is lost, there is an inscription plaque over the door of the neigborhing Eshab-i Keyf mosque, originally belonging to the ribat, which includes three lines of Seljuk naskh calligraphy. It reads as follows:
"This ribat was built in the time of the glorious sultan, exalter of the world and the Faith, the great conqueror, the helper of the commander of the believers, the son of Keyhusrev, Sultan Keykubad, by Emir Nusretuddin Hasan, son of Ibrahim - May Allah bless him and have mercy upon him - in the year 630."
It can be seen from the mosque door inscription that the patron was Emir Nasr
ad-Din Hasan ibn Ibrahim.It is believed that this same Emir was also the patron
of the Eshab-i Kehf han. A former slave, he became governor of Maraş under Alaeddin Keykubad
from 1211 until at least 1232. Ibnul Adim, who visited the area in 1230, speaks
of an imaret (soup kitchen) for visitors, which corresponds to the dates of the
appointment of Emir Nusretüddin Hasan.
This han is located in a highly scenic and remote area, atop a small mountain, offering a majestic view of the countryside below, ringed on four sides by mountains. The site of Eshab-i Kehf cave is associated with the Christian story of the Seven Sleepers of the Cave which also appears in the Qur'an, Sura 18, The Cave Sura (al-Kahf) as the Companions of the Cave. The cave has been a sacred pilgrimage site since ancient times. It was designated as a holy place by Christians, who built additional religious structures around the cave.
This han is part of a complex: in addition to the han, there is a mosque (once a Byzantine church) and a ribat (fort). All form a building complex called the Eshab'ül Kehf Külliyesi. The church was a pilgrimage site in Christian times, and the whole complex has continued as such in Islamic times.
The Esab-i Kehf ribat, with its finely-decorated portal, is the highlight of this complex. Sitting high on the hill, the ribat dominates the entire complex. It is one of the most outstanding examples of Seljuk military architecture. Ribats were used for defense purposes, military garrisons and as dervish lodges by various Sufi religious orders. The han is situated below it, and is a more modestly-decorated structure. The facades of the two structures face each other. The ribat served first as a soup kitchen (imaret) and later as a dervish lodge. The ribat was commissioned by Maraş Emir Nusretüddin Hasan Bey, during the reigns of Izzeddin Keykavus I and Alaeddin Keykubad, between 1215 and 1234.
A large tandir (underground pit oven generally used for baking flatbread) is located above the ribat, on a high hill. This oven is located next to a large flat rock used for rolling the bread dough. Similar tandirs have have been discovered in other hans.
Next to the ribat is the mosque, built on the site of the former pilgrimage church named the John Manuk Church. This church was mentioned by Erdmann, referring to Babinger. Kiepert also marked the church on his map. You definitely feel that you are in a Christian church when you are in this mosque. Extensive reuse spolia material and marble column capitals from the former church remain inside the mosque. Many of these are notable examples of marble stonecutting.
The original construction date of the mosque is not certain. Ibnul Adim, the Arab bibliographer and historian from Aleppo, came to the site in 1230 and affirms that there was an imaret and a large stone tomb built in front of the cave, which was converted into a mosque at a later date. It is believed that the mosque was built during the time of the Dulkadiroğullari Beylik (14th century) or during the Ottoman period.
The han is oriented north-south and the entrance faces south. The han has a rectangular plan, and comprises a long courtyard surrounded by rooms of different sizes.
The plan of the Eshab-i Kehf Han differs in certain features from the traditional Seljuk Han plan. It consists of open and closed rooms arranged around a long, narrow courtyard. Directly opposite the entrance is a large iwan with vaulted rooms on each side. The stable section to the west is also unusual. This concentric plan is similar to the plans of the Alara and Tercan hans. This han plan is more similar to the plan of a medrese than a han with the traditional covered section and open courtyard plan.
The damaged crown door leading into the courtyard was restored during the repairs made to the han. The pointed arch of the crown door projects slightly from the façade and is surrounded by a border decorated at the lower level with half-stars. This is the only decoration in the han.
The courtyard contains open and closed rooms on three sides (8m wide and 21 m deep). There are three open iwans on the east and west sides, with closed rooms between them. The south (entry) side has a larger iwan flanked by two closed rooms. The room located to the left of the entrance is wider than the other rooms and probably served as the quarters of the innkeeper. The room to the west of the entry leads to the long covered hall on the west of the structure. There is a series of series of three rectangular rooms opposite the entrance. All are designed as iwans.
The most interesting element of the plan is the stables section. This han shows an advanced plan with the stables isolated from the other sections to ensure greater comfort for the travelers. The concentric plan comprises a large, L-shaped covered area that runs along the entire western side of the courtyard. This area was used as the stables. This long hall on the western side was covered with a pointed barrel vault. There are no window slits in the walls. Access to the stables is just inside the entrance to the han, to the right. These stables are isolated from the other sections of the courtyard, which are thus isolated from the noise and smells of animals. A window in the last small room on the west side of the courtyard gives a view onto the stable area for supervising the animals.
The walls of the han were built with smooth-face stone, although old photographs reveal that pitch-faced stone was used for the outer walls and smooth-faced on the interior sides, piers and surfaces. Drainage pipes were placed on the east walls.
As there is no caravan road passing in front of the han, it is believed that the han was built for the pilgrims coming to the cave, rather than for commercial purposes.
No bath has been noted. The water source was from the spring located below the ribat. Inside of the ribat there is an underground spring which links to the Esab-i Kehf underground springs and caves, 3 miles to the west.
The outer walls of the east side were reinforced by four square support towers. It was not necessary to add support towers to the west wall, as it was built flush to the mountainside.
The only decoration in the han appears on the borders of the crown door. The arch of the portal door of the ribat is filled with a highly-decorated program of muqarnas (stalactites) and rosettes. The portal of the han is simple, and the inscription plaque has been lost.
850m2 (external area)
STATE OF CONSERVATION, CURRENT USAGE
The entire complex is in excellent condition, and was completely restored in 2008. Many of the original architectural elements were lost during the repair, but the plan and construction elements have remained intact. The han may be visited (if closed, ask guardian in the house above to open). The damaged crown door was restored during repairs made to the han. The site is highly-frequented on Fridays for prayer and on the weekends for picnics, and the drinking water of the spring below the ribat is highly-prized. The complex, with its history, prominence of site, emotional impact, serene setting, and ecumenical spirit retains the original spiritual atmosphere of the Christian pilgrimage site. Today, visitors tie votive wish ribbons to the trees and bushes on the hill above the complex where they flutter in the wind as they have for centuries you, too, should do the same to honor this site of interfaith peace.
Acun, H. Anadolu Selçuklu Dönemi Kervansarayları. Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı Publications, 2007, p. 497.
Altun, Ara. An Outline of Turkish Architecture in the Middle Ages, 1990, p. 199.
Aslanapa, Oktay. "Anadolu'da Ilk Türk Mimarisi." Ankara: Atatürk Kültür, Dil ve Tarih Yüksek Kurumu, 1991, p. 118.
Bektaş, Cengiz. Selçuklu kervansarayları, korunmaları ve kullanılmaları uzerine bir öneri = A proposal regarding the Seljuk caravanserais, their protection and use, 1999, pp. 128-129.
Eravşar, Osman. Yollarin Taniklari (Witnesses of the Way), 2017, pp. 519-522.
Erdmann, Kurt. Das Anatolische Karavansaray des 13. Jahrhunderts, 1961, pp. 187-188, no. 59.
Ibn al-Adim. Bughyrat al-talab fi tarikh Halab = Everything desirable about the History of Aleppo. 11 vols, 1986-90, p. 334.
Karpuz, Haşim. & Kuş, A. & Dıvarcı, I. & Şimşek, F. Anadolu Selçuklu Eserleri, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 398-399.
Kiepert, R. Karte von Kleinasien, in 24 Blatt bearbeitet, 1902-1916.
McClary, Richard P. Rum Seljuq Architecture 1170-1220: The Patronage of Sultans. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016, p. 67, 73.
Özkarcı, Mehmet. "Esab-I Keyf Han" in Acun, H. Anadolu Selçuklu Dönemi Kervansarayları. Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı, 2007, pp. 436-447 (includes bibliography).
Rice Tamara Talbot. The Seljuks in Asia Minor, 1961, p. 206.
Yinanç, Refet. Eshab-ı Kehf Vakıfları, Vakıflar Dergisi, XX (1988), pp. 311-320.
view from the ribat
For further views, click on thumbnails below:
entry to kulliye complex
elaborate stalactite portal of the ribat
overview of ribat
detail of portal carving
side niche of ribat portal
entry hall to ribat
spolia capital head in mosque courtyard
niche in mosque (former altar area of church?)
underground spring in mosque
spolia capital in mosque
spolia capital in mosque
spolia capital in mosque
spolia capital in mosque
mosque interior showing spolia columns and capitals
patio area outside of mosque
tandir (cooking oven) on hill above ribat
tandir stone used for making bread
inscription plaque over ribat portal
detail of exquisite carving of ribat portal
detail of carving on ribat portal
overview of han
rear view of han
interior view of courtyard of han
covered side hall to west of han
cross-vaulting in courtyard room
view of courtyard room
courtyard room, west
courtyard rooms, east
overview of courtyard, east
overview of courtyard, looking south
overview of han courtyard, looking west
view of courtyard, west
countryside near Afşin
countryside near Afşin
view from ribat
view from ribat
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